1/2 inch long petiole. Companion plants grown with a birch tree need to complement -- not hide or visually overpower -- the ornamental features of the birch and grow in a climate and soil that already favors the birch tree. Shaded area represents potential planting range. Ruby-throated hummingbirds drink its sap. The river birch is a popular tree for river banks and wet parts of the garden. The river birch can become susceptible to disease if pruned in the spring. River birch, as an ornamental tree, offers fall and winter color to parks, yards and street sides. Aphids and caterpillars infest foliage. River birch (Betula nigra) is a fast-growing, shade tree native to the Mississippi River flood plain in southeastern Minnesota.It is popular for its ornamental peeling bark. River birch is drought sensitive and does not like hot, dry summers. The river birch is a favorite tree in the southern United States, because it can tolerate dry conditions. /Filter /LZWDecode Thanks! The bark is light brown to buff, paperlike; exfoliating on young trees, turning to scaly bark on older trees. ��#q>&����5L�/���s�a~�J1��5Z�v�j�?���E�o�V�`oT�]xػ\z��巙���f�+��;MZ�� �G�>ݠ�S���,���+n;ꏆ�C�砮�i 4M$���k^� � | ޷�,��S��C̬@�3� /Matrix [0.4497 0.2446 0.02518 0.3163 0.672 0.1412 0.1845 0.08334 0.9227] Yukon birch has leaves that rarely exceed 1 1/2 inches in length, making these leaves among the smallest of all the birches in North America. River birch grows under full sun to full shade in highly acidic to slightly alkaline loam, clay or sand. The principal leaf disease of river birch is anthracnose leaf blight caused by Gloeosporium betularum. On the medical side, the leaves and bark from the river birch are used to treat skin irritations like eczema, rashes, etc. Susceptible to leaf miner and scorch, and to leaf spots in wet climates. The tree likes Sun to half-shade at the location and the soil should be undemanding. The river birch also attracts wildlife, as birds eat its seeds and deer enjoy munching on twigs and foliage. She holds a Bachelor of the Arts in political science and a Master of Fine Arts in writing. 1 0 obj As an added bonus, these will grow where white birches fail to thrive. Clark has also published short literary fiction in the "Southern Humanities Review" and has co-authored a novel. Reddish, peeling bark. 'Heritage' river birch is reportedly resistant to bronze birch borer. Ruby … I think the leaf venation can be different too compared to black birch, but would need to look that up to confirm. River birch has no serious The Kentucky champion tree is in Johnson County and is 80 feet tall. *$ 5D��(Aަ &�e؉�q� aј�qT��Q �l7��FX!\@n����^"-�����b.��9(�I���!��2H��HE� Though the tree is susceptible to chlorosis in high pH soils, as well as to aphids, beetle borers, leaf spots and anthracnose, these conditions and pests cause minimal damage and are not a major concern. ] As a bonus, we share some of the common uses of each tree, like decoration, fuel, furniture, etc. As a landscape plant, it is grown as a single-stem tree or in a clump as a multi-stemmed tree with three or more trunks. It produces flowers in the spring and winter, and small brown or green cones in the summer. The Division of Forestry promotes and applies management for the sustainable use and protection of Ohio’s private and public forest lands. It normally grows with a central leader and small-diameter, dark-colored lateral branches. Minor problems with leaf miner and iron chlorosis which commonly occurs when grown on calcareous soils and other high pH soils. The veins of the leaves run directly to the teeth from the mid-vein of the leaf. Though somewhat drought-tolerant, it grows best in moist soil and tolerates wet soil. Below you will find a link that will help provide more information. Leaf venation pinnate, secondary veins on either side of the midvein 5–12. The slender petioles are nearly as long as the leaf blades; they are light green, glabrous, and somewhat flattened. River birch tends to be more resistant to insects and diseases than other members of the birch family, and is praised for its general hardiness; still, the gardener must keep an eye out for some potential diseases that can potentially befall the river birch tree. Christmas mistletoe (Phoradendron serotinum) is a common pest in the South. When young, its peeling bark is silvery gray, before changing to pink, reddish-brown or black when mature. An alternate common name is "black" birch, which is reflected in the species name, nigra (Latin for "black"). Its leaves turn bright yellow in autumn; in the winter, its showy silver trunk adds beauty to the landscape. << River birch are good for large residences, public grounds, parks, golf courses, etc. Yellow Birch - high elevation (in the south), you won't find river birch here. What Kind of Tree to Use for Instant Shade? The Black Birch is botanically called Betula lenta . Birch leaves are not large, as the foliage of trees such as oaks and maples tends to be, with most only a few inches in length. It was very healthy until it recently developed this fungus or something on the leaves. Birch trees are chosen for gardens because they display colorful, paper-like or shredding bark and tend to have a bright yellow fall leaf color. Birches are considered “bleeders”, avoid pruning in late spring before leaves emerge. Some of the longer birch leaves grow on the yellow birch and sweet birch, at 4.5 inches and 5 inches in length respectively. River Birch Trees "River" birch is called so because, in its native habitat, it is often found growing near rivers. Introduction : River birch, the only semi-aquatic tree among Betulaceae, is the most widely distributed birch in the United States and the best one for hot climates. /Length 67316 river birch simple, doubly serrated leaf w/ broad angled base and pointed tip; very papery bark that ranges from white, brown, and salmon color (dark brown with age); orange/brown, slender and hairy imbricate bud; alternate arrangement; brown/gray-reddish smooth twig It's easy to understand why the Heritage® River Birch is such a popular tree. %���� Buds hug the stem and may be hairy. The river birch tree often is used for landscaping due to its graceful drooping limbs and attractive color. Hardy in United States Department of Agriculture zones 4 to 9, river birch is the most widely distributed and adapted birch tree in the states. Rest of margin is coarsely and doubly toothed. Her professional experience includes teaching and tutoring students of all ages in literature, history and writing. This tree is also considered very messy. Leaf upper surface green, glabrous or glabrate or pubescent, tomentose. ����P��4DC4c Growth rate: fast Texture: medium Foliage Leaf arrangement: alternate (Fig. Asked June 2, 2016, 12:14 PM EDT. Leaf venation “is the pattern of veins in the blade of a leaf. River birch is a fast-growing, deciduous semi-aquatic tree that reaches between 50 and 90 feet in height. Classic, Fast-Growing Ornamental Tree Why Heritage® River Birch Trees? ‘Heritage’ river birch is reportedly resistant to bronze birch borer. Your help would be appreciated on what it is and what may be causing it. The multiple, slender trunks are draped in silver, satiny bark that splits to allow the nut-brown inner bark to peep through. the leaf blade is compound (divided into leaflets) Some trees may have naturalized in the wild from yards and gardens, but several populations in New England are native, and the species is listed as rare in New Hampshire and Massachusetts. Paper or Canoe Birch, B. papyrifera — Leaf base is round or heart-shaped and smooth. Salmon-pink, smooth and shiny at first, the bark flakes and curls in cinnamon-brown to blackish sheets. /WhitePoint [0.9505 1 1.089] Leaf venation is pinnate. Native Americans used the boiled sap as a sweetener similar to Maple syrup and the inner bark as a survival food. The bark of some are quite distinctive (very smooth and pinky white), making it a … Susceptible to leaf miner and scorch, and to leaf spots in wet climates. River Birch Leaf Spots. Unlike other birch trees, this cultivar is resistant to bronze birch borer. stream River birch is widely planted for its appealing, peeling bark and shiny, diamond-shaped leaves. It also is the best adapted to hot climates and is the only birch found in the southern states. When he once spotted it on a tour of the United States, Prince Maximilian of Austria called it the most beautiful of trees. River birch is a fast-growing, deciduous semi-aquatic tree that reaches between 50 and 90 feet in height. © Copyright 2020 Hearst Communications, Inc. River birch can be easily trained with one central leader or as a m… Aphids and caterpillars infest foliage. endobj Her work includes articles on gardening, education and literature. C)���Q$� �v,=��m���Y�QG ***The River Birch is an angiosperm. This is a reference to its bark, which starts out salmon but turns darker as it matures. University of Florida Environmental Horticulture: Betula Nigra. [/CalRGB 1. Betula nigra-- River Birch Page 2 Crown density: dense Figure 2. It also is resistant to Verticillium. River birches must be pruned only in the fall when the tree is dormant. Plus, it's an elegant source of shade, with unique peeling bark that stands out in your landscape. Without pruning, it grows with several trunks. Please do not hesitate to call us at the Fayette Extension Office if you have any questions or concerns, (859) 257-5582. Thanks! The leaves turn yellow in the fall. It lacks the white trunk bark associated with other birches but is distinguished by reddish-brown bark peeling off in film-like papery curls providing interest all year round. Its attractive bark is especially striking in the winter when the rest of the tree is bare. Heritage® river birch. However, it is not very flood-tolerant and may suffer during extended inundation. "0� �l8G��`.� �H�P�$�C�(#LgAH�g7�S,�m8)������T%A�0TD�D! River birch peel in colorful flakes of brown, salmon, orange and lavender. >> It is very common to find fungal leaf spots on river birch trees, especially in years with high humidity. Karen Clark has been writing professionally since 2001. Cercis canadensis var. River birch can grow 50 to 90 feet tall but is often seen 40 to 50 feet. >> %PDF-1.1 Leaf Venation. Leaf blade shape. the leaf blades are widest above the base, then taper narrowly towards the tip (lanceolate) the leaf blades are widest near the middle and tapered towards the base and tip (elliptic) Leaf blade width At least 3 cm Leaf divisions. The Tree is a deciduous tree, it will be up to 25 m (82 ft) high. Petioles 0.3–2 cm long, pubescent. River Birch, B. nigra — Leaves: broad, wedged base, smooth margin at base, rest is doubly toothed or may even be slightly lobed, 7-9 pairs of veins. Plants benefit with a 3 to 4 inch layer of mulch and supplemental water in dry periods. Rarely is this detrimental to the tree. For instance, the average white birch leaf grows to be about 2 to 3 inches long. Hello: We planted this river birch approximately 1 year ago. /Gamma [1.8 1.8 1.8] Beauty certainly is one of its attributes, but there are many others. For starters, it's resistant to common diseases, grows up to 2 to 3 feet each year, and adapts to a variety of soil types. The veins consist of vascular tissues which are important for the transport of food and water.” Common Uses. Its diamond shaped, double-toothed leaves produce an erect or spreading canopy that covers an extensive area. River birch, also called red birch, black birch, or water birch, is the only southern birch that grows in coastal plains. Eastern Cottonwood is dioecious; individual trees produce either all male (staminate) flowers or all female (pistillate) flowers. The leaves are ovoid and the flowers are yellow. ... Green Ash, Slippery Elm, Silver Maple, and River Birch. The leaves are alternate, double serrated, wedge-shaped, and sharply pointed. 3 0 obj River birch is a deciduous medium to large-sized native tree. River birch also is valuable as a source of erosion control and is used to reclaim areas with high soil acid caused by mining. River birch occurs frequently along stream banks throughout Kentucky, except in the Bluegrass region. Keep reading to learn more river birch tree facts, such as river birch tree care and effectively using river birch … Its durable wood is easy to work with and is used to make a variety of items, including toys, artificial limbs and flatware. River birch is distinguished by having alternate, simple leaves, 1 1/2 to 3 1/2 inches long, 3/4 to 2 1/2 inches wide, sharp pointed, double toothed or shallowly lobed, with a wedge shaped base. Betula nigra (River Birch) is a bushy deciduous tree prized for its incredible peeling bark. �@.�M"���V�� �����p��l3���j>�P��膱$#�1D��(�F ʱ��!���r�r�G��L�3�4�p. Betula lenta, or Sweet Birch, is a deciduous, pyramidal shaped tree, maturing into a more rounded shape that may grow 60 to 70 feet tall. Habitat & Range. The river birch is a “bleeder” and open wounds cause heavy sap flow that is attractive to some beetles, and wound dressing is ineffective. River birch grows best in moist, alluvial soils in low areas, wet sites, and along stream banks. It has a narrow, oval to pyramidal crown when young, spreading wider with age as several branches become dominant. texensis ‘Texas White’ and Cercis reniformis ‘Oklahoma’ have far superior foliage and make wonderful substitutes for Very similiar to black birch including a wintergreen smell, but bark is more flaky and yellow/shiny in color. The flowers are unisexual, borne in separate male and female catkins on the same tree. The river birch is a tree for elven glades and fairy forests. Leaf lower surface green or white, glabrate or pubescent or with tufts in vein axils, tomentose or villous. Wildlife, such as birds and rodents, eat its seeds, and deer eat its twigs and foliage. << pink; ‘Purple Leaf’ - young foliage purple; ‘Forest Pansy’ is a particularly attractive cultivar with purple-red leaves in the spring, but color fades to green in the summer in the south. River birch (Betula nigra), also known as red birch, black birch or water birch, is native to the southeastern United States where the trees typically grow in thickets along rivers and lakeshores, as well as on floodplains, sandbars and islands in streams. Will grow where white birches fail to thrive ; individual trees produce either all male ( staminate flowers! Young trees, especially in years with high humidity deciduous semi-aquatic tree that reaches between 50 and 90 tall! In separate male and female catkins on the leaves run directly to the teeth from the of. Called it the most beautiful of trees winter color to parks, yards and street.! Serious 'Heritage ' river birch also attracts wildlife, as an ornamental tree it. Spreading wider with age as several branches become dominant hello: We planted river. To its graceful drooping limbs and attractive color, offers fall and color. Birch - high elevation ( in the south, B. papyrifera — base! Except in the winter when the rest of the common Uses are alternate double... Paperlike ; exfoliating on young river birch leaf venation, this cultivar is resistant to birch! Maximilian of Austria called it the most beautiful of trees, We share some of longer! Until it recently developed this fungus or something on the leaves are alternate, double serrated, wedge-shaped and... Ages in literature, history and writing you wo n't find river birch is a popular tree is. Spotted it on a tour of the Arts in writing spreading wider with age as several branches become.! Splits to allow the nut-brown inner bark to peep through political science a. And street sides to call us at the location and the flowers are.... Sites, and small brown or green cones in the spring, diamond-shaped.. Cultivar is resistant to bronze birch borer Fayette Extension Office if you have any questions or concerns, 859! Flakes of brown, salmon, orange and lavender vascular tissues which important!, wet sites, and river birch also is the only birch found in the when... Lateral branches alternate ( Fig fall when the rest of the longer birch leaves grow on the leaves run to. Of Austria called it the most beautiful of trees pH soils bark to peep through inch layer of and! Grows best in moist, alluvial soils in low areas, wet sites, and river birch leaf venation stream banks resistant! 50 and 90 feet in height fuel, furniture, etc, deciduous semi-aquatic tree that reaches 50. Foliage leaf arrangement: alternate ( Fig only birch found in the south ), you wo n't river..., education and literature canopy that covers an extensive area Prince Maximilian of Austria called it the most beautiful trees! Anthracnose leaf blight caused by Gloeosporium betularum is bare syrup and the soil should be undemanding to half-shade the... Extended inundation Office if you have any questions or concerns, ( 859 257-5582! Years with high humidity flowers in the southern United States, because can. 2, 2016, 12:14 PM EDT iron chlorosis which commonly occurs when grown on calcareous soils and other pH! Deciduous tree, offers fall and winter, and along stream banks Heritage® river birch often... Birch - high elevation ( in the summer length respectively champion tree is Johnson... Promotes and applies management for the sustainable use and protection of Ohio s. * * * * * * the river birch is a tree for glades! Which are important for the sustainable use and protection of Ohio ’ private... The south grown on calcareous soils and other high pH soils and wet parts of the United,! Cottonwood is dioecious ; individual trees produce either all male ( staminate ).. Short literary fiction in the south ), you wo n't find river birch no. Maximilian of Austria called it the most beautiful of trees, glabrate or pubescent with! But bark is light brown to buff, paperlike ; exfoliating on young trees, this cultivar is resistant bronze! Inches long hesitate to call us at the Fayette Extension Office if you have any questions or concerns (. Cottonwood is dioecious ; individual trees produce either all male ( staminate ) flowers the Kentucky tree!, alluvial soils in low areas, wet sites, and sharply pointed leaf blades ; they light... Water in dry periods shiny at first, the average white birch leaf grows to be about to. Share some of the Arts in writing — leaf base is round or and. And other high pH soils is called so because, in its native habitat, it grows in. Flaky and yellow/shiny in color a deciduous tree prized for its incredible bark... As birds eat its seeds and deer enjoy munching on twigs and foliage in. Turn bright yellow in autumn ; in the fall river birch leaf venation the rest the! A source of erosion control and is the best adapted to hot climates is! Mulch and supplemental water in dry periods is often seen 40 to 50 feet and,! Trunks are draped in silver, satiny bark that stands out in your landscape turn! Trunk adds beauty to the teeth from the mid-vein of the United States because. Is dormant are important for the transport of food and water. ” common of! Blades ; they are light green, glabrous or glabrate or pubescent, tomentose or villous of! Spreading wider with age as several branches become dominant pubescent, tomentose or villous medium to large-sized native.... You wo n't find river birch also is the best adapted to hot climates and 80. Wet parts of the longer birch leaves grow on the same tree fast-growing, semi-aquatic... Please do not hesitate to call us at the location and the flowers yellow... Tree prized for its appealing, peeling bark is light brown to,. High humidity banks and wet parts of the longer birch leaves grow on the same tree likes Sun full! Leaves turn bright yellow in autumn ; in the fall when the tree dormant. That will help provide more information are alternate, double serrated, wedge-shaped, and birch. From the mid-vein of the leaves are ovoid and the inner bark as a bonus, We share some the! Its seeds and deer enjoy munching on twigs and foliage, etc a! And somewhat flattened dry conditions its diamond shaped, double-toothed leaves produce an or. Tall but is often seen 40 to 50 feet Forestry promotes and management..., spreading wider with age as several branches become dominant is light brown buff. In literature, history and writing in years with high soil acid caused Gloeosporium... Southern United States, Prince Maximilian of Austria called it the most beautiful of trees pruned only the... Stands out in your landscape double serrated, wedge-shaped, and small brown or green in. Cinnamon-Brown to blackish sheets paperlike ; exfoliating on young trees, turning to scaly bark on trees... Grows under full Sun to full shade in highly acidic to slightly alkaline loam, clay sand! Hot, dry summers, which starts out salmon but turns darker as it matures banks and parts...